Wednesday, August 28, 2013

ZOMBIE

Ang sentro ng mundo ng mga "zombie" ay ang isla ng Hispaniola, sa kanlurang bahagi ng Indies. Marami sa mga manggagawa dito sa mga taniman ang naniniwala sa mga "BOKORS" ito ay mangkukulam na may kakayahan na buhayin ang mga namatay nilang mahal sa buhay subalit walang sariling isip at mistulang mga puppet. Ang mga biktima ay ginagawang alipin ng "bokors". Ang ideyang Carribean patungkol sa mga zombie ay may katotohanan, at ang mga zombie na ito ay makikitang naglalakad-lakad sa mga daan sa iba't-ibang panig ng isla.  Ilan sa mga ito ay mga yumaong miyembro ng kanilang pamilya o mga kaibigan na naging zombie,upang maiwasang mangyari ang ganito ang ilan sa mga namamatayan sa nasabing lugar ay nilalagyan nila ng mabibigat na bato ang himlayan ng kanilang mga mahal sa buhay, upang hindi sila manakaw ng mga bokors. Ayon din sa nabasa ko noong high school pa ako, yong iba naman ay nabibilitang putulin ang paa ng yumao ng sa gayon hindi na pag-interesan pa ng mga bokors.

Ang katotohanang ito ay sadyang nakakatakot, kahit na hindi naman ito ginagamitan ng kapangyarihan na galing sa ibang mundo. Ayon sa mga ekspertong psychiatrist kanilang sinasabi na ang mga taong natataguriang zombie sa alamat ng Haiti ay merong seryosong karamdaman na may kaugnayan sa pag-iisip. Sangayon naman sa ilang komentarista kanilang sinasabi na ang ideya ng zombie ay ang simpleng paraan upang ipaliwanag ang mga taong wala sa normal na kondisyon. Pinaniniwalaan rin na ang paggamit ng natural na katutubong sangkap ay nagagawa ng mga bokors na magkaroon ng ganitong karamdaman ang kanilang biktima.

Gamit ang kemikal na tinatawag na "tetrodoxin", na natatagpuan sa isdang butete (puffer fish), ang biktima ng bokor ay magkakaroon ng matinding pagkaparalisa. Kung saan aakalain ng kanyang kapamilya na siya ay patay na, at ito ay kanilang ililibing. Ang kakulangan ng oksihino (oxygen) sa loob ng kabaong ay magiging dahilan upang magkaroon ng depekto sa utak, at kapag dumating na ang bokor para kunin ang bangkay, ang biktima ay bibigyang lunas gamit ang substansya na tinatawag na "datura stramonium" o "zombie cucumber" na isang uri ng droga na komokontrol ng kaisipan. Ang ibang lason, na matatagpuan sa palaka sa tubuhan (cane toad), ay pwedeng i-extract na magsisilbing "hallucinogens" at "anaesthetics" sa biktima. Ito ay magdadala sa kanila sa permaninteng pagkawala sa sarili (trance), at hindi makakaramdam ng anumang pisikal na sakit, at higit sa lahat ay isang banta sa mga tao sapagkat nasa ilalim sila ng kapangyarihan ng bokors.

SOMA

Terminong ginagamit sa himno ng Rig-Veda, isa sa apat na sagradong kasulatan ng India (ang iba ay ang; Sama Veda, Yajur Veda, at ang Atharva Veda). Ang mga pangunahing katuruan ng Vedas ay nasa porma ng upanishads, kung saan merong 108 na nangungunang kasulatan at ilang bilang ng hindi masyadong importanteng kasulatan. Sa ika-siyam na kapitulo ng Rig-Veda ay naglalaman ng 114 na bersikulo na nagpupugay sa "SOMA", ang ambrosia ng mga bathala at siya ring nagbibigay ng imortalidad. Malinaw rin na ang "soma" ay tumutukoy sa nakakalasing na inumin (may posibilidad na gawa sa milk-weed asclepsias acida na sinasalarawan sa Yajur Veda bilang; maitim, may kakaibang asim at walang dahon). Ang inuming ito ay inihahandog ng mga pari para sa dios, kalimitan sa pormang alak tulad ng sakramento ng relihiyong Kristiyanismo bilang simbolismo.

Nang ika-dalampung siglo, ilang manunulat, isa na dito si R. Gordon Wasson sa kanyang aklat na "SOMA, Divine Mushroom of Immortality (1968), kung saan hinihinala na ang "SOMA" ay ang "amanita muscaria" (uri ng kabute na merong taglay na epektong "hallucinogenic") sa mistisismong Indian ito ang nakakapagpalango sa kanilang mga tinuturing na pari. Ang suhestyon na ito ay lumabas mula sa pananaliksik ni Wasson sa Mexico, ng kanyang matuklasan ang practice ng relihiyon ng Mazatec Indian kung saan ang mga ito ay gumagamit ng kabuteng may hallucinogenic na epekto.

Ang teorya ni Wasson ukol sa SOMA ay naging kaakit-akit noong 1960's panahon ng "psychedelic revolution, at naging fashion ito upang palawakin ang pananaw ni Wasson na ang "trancendental revelation" ay nakakamit sa paggamit ng "psychedelic drugs". Isa pang manunulat, si John M. Allegro, ay nagmumungkahi sa kanyang aklat na "THE SACRED MUSHROOM AND THE CROSS (1970)" na ang kwento ng pagkakapako ni Jesus ay isang simbolikong alamat na likha ng "psychedelic drug".

Ang nakalalangong inumin ay tanyag na noong unang panahon pa man sa; Ehipto, India, Gresya at Roma. Ang babala patungkol sa pagkalasing ay nababanggit na sa mga sinaunang kasulatan, isa na dito ang Bibliya, sa Kasabihan ni Solomon, sa Isaiah, Jeremiah, Amos at Oseas. Sa relihiyong Kristiyano, si apostol Pablo ay nagreklamo tungkol sa pagkalasing sa agape, o "love feasts" na natural namang ipinagdidiwang. Si Novation, ama ng simbahan noong ika-tatlong siglo ay nagsabi sa mga kristiyanong nag-ayuno na sa umaga ay simula na ito ng inuman, ibubuhos ang alak hanggang sa mawalan ng lakas, at malasing bago pa man kumain. Sa India, ang MANAVA DHARMA SHASTRA (Ordinances of Manu), ang panuntunang pangrelihiyon at tungkulin ng sibilyan, ay ipinagbabawal ang pagkalasing sa mga paring Brahmin at malinaw na sinasabi na ang SOMA ay inuming mula sa halaman, hindi mula sa kabute. Minsan ang halamang ito ay tinataguriang "moon plant," ang soma ay tradisyonal na inuugnay sa buwan.

Sa yoga meditation, sinasabi na ang totoong soma o "elixir of life" ay ang pag-iisa ng dalawang enerhiya ng "kundalini" sa katawan ng tao, na maghahatid sa mataas na estado ng kamalayan. Sa ibang mistiko naniniwala sila na ang kundalini ay isang enerhiya na nahihimlay sa kuyukot (base of the spine o coccyx) na nagiging aktibo sa normal na pamumuhay, katulad ng pakikipagtalik, subalit ang sekswal na enerhiya ay nararapat na paakyatin pataas sa mga "subtle channels" ng ating spine patungo sa sentro ng ating ulo, na nakakapagbigay kaliwanagan sa ating kamalayan ng kamalayang mistiko. Ang layunin ng ilang porma sa yogang pagsasanay ay patungkol ito sa pag-iisa ng araw at buwan, ang mainit at malamig na enerhiya ng kundalini sa ating spinal column. Sa tagpuan ng dalawang enerhiyang ito, ang maluwalhating kalagayan ay tinuturing na "drinking of the soma juice", ang daloy ng enerhiya ay "amaravaruni" (wine drinking)".

Ang malawak na simbolismo sa mistisismo kalimitan ay nabibigyan ng maling interpretasyon, na nagiging sanhi ng pagkaligaw ng mga mambabasa at mananaliksik, kadalasan ang interpretasyon ay ginagawang literal katulad ng "pag-inom ng soma" na sa mistisismo ito ay simbolismo lamang. Mag-ingat po tayo lalo na sa mga nababasa natin, baka may ilang pangahas at subukan uminom ng hindi nya nalalaman, at maging dahilan pa ito ng pagkalason o pagkabaliw.

ANG NEKTAR NG IMORTALIDAD

Ang araw ay sinasabing nasa pusod, at kapag ang ulo ay nakatungo, ito ay lumilikha ng lason na nagreresulta sa pagiging mortal. Sa pamamagitan ng kaalamang yoga ay madidiskubre ang bulaklak sa ating lalamunan (visshudhi) at ang bulaklak na ito ay mapapataas upang makakuha ng "soma", ang katas ng imortalidad. Ang soma ay umaakyat pataas hanggang ajna (sentro ng kilay), ang luklukan ng buwan, kapag ito ay mababago bilang isang likidong astral.
Ito ay isinasalarawan sa YOGA SHIKHA UPANISHAD (5:32-33): "Ang potensyal na enerhiya ng universo ay ang enerhiya na kung saan ay may aspetong nasa tao. Ang apoy sa kalawakan, ang araw, ay umuugnay sa pusod ng tao. Sa pusod ang araw ay lason, subalit kapag ito ay idinerktang pataas, nagsisimula itong lumikha ng nektar. Ang buwan ay nasa pinakapuno ng ngalangala, na kung saan ang nektar ay  pumapatak."

Karagdagan pa, sa GHERANDA SAMHITA (3:28-31) ito ang sinasabi: "Ang araw ay nasa panimula ng pusodl at ang buwan ay nasa pinakapuno ng ngalangala. Ang nektar na lumalabas mula sa buwan ay ina-absorb ng araw kaya ang tao ay namamatay. Idirekta ang araw pataas at papuntahin naman pababa ang buwan. Ito ang "vipareeta karani mudra", ang sekreto ng lahat ng tantras. Ilagay ang ulo sa sahig pati ang mga kamay. At ang hita pataas habang nanatili ang ulo na nasa sahig. Ito ang vipareeta karani mudra na pinapalagay na ginagawa ng mga yogi. Ang palagiang pagsagawa ng vipareeta karani mudra ay ang mag-iiwas sa isang tao sa pagtanda at kamatayan, at maging ang pagbabago sa kalikasan ay hindi makakaapekto sa kanya. Siya ay magiging siddha (perpekto) ng lahat ng mundo."

Ang pisikal na sekresyon ng glandulang thyroid, pituitary, pineal at adrenal ay nakokontrol sa ganitong pagsasanay. Ang soma ang pinakamahalagang produkto ng katawan at ang pagsasanay na khechari mudra pati ang vipareeta karani mudra ay ang paraan upang mapreserba ang sekresyon. Ang yogi na nakakagawang mapapatak ang likido patungo sa taas ng nasal sa pamamagitan ng pagtaas ng dila sa palatal cavity sa kalambutan ng ngalangala, ang sinumang makatikim nito at hindi tatalaban ng lason maging kagat ng ahas. Ang soma ay tinaguriang "amrit" at ang amrit ay sinasalin bilang NEKTAR NG IMORTALIDAD. Ang direktang kahulugan ay "hindi mortal", nangangahulugan na imortal.

Sa totoo lang ang pinakasentro ng buwan ay nasa itaas ng ngalangala, kung saan ito ay tumutugon sa pisikolohikal na lokasyon ng mga glandula. Ang sekresyon na nagmumula sa glandulang palatal ay ina-absorb at tinutuyo ng glandulang nasa parteng ibaba. Kapag ang sekresyon na nagmumula sa ngalangala kahit papano ay na-preserba, ang tissue ng katawan ay babagal ang pagkasira nito.

Ang kaisipan, soma at likidong astral ay nauugnay sa sentro ng buwan ng ajna. Ang soma at likidong astral ay nagbibigay lakas sa ating kaisipan; ang lakas na ito ay kinakailangan upang makatagal sa mga pagsubok sa buhay ispiritwal. Sa pagpapabago ng mahalagang likido mula sa manipura patungo sa soma, ang nektar ay matitikman sa likuran ng bibig mula sa pinakapuno ng ngalangala. Ang epektong ito ay makakapagpabago sa istraktura ng buong katawan. Maraming yogi ang nakaganap ng ganitong praktis na kung saan naabot nila ang mataas na antas ng kamalayan, nagkamit ng mga siddhis (mistikong kapangyarihan) at nabuhay ng napakatagal. Nabuhay sila na may perpektong kalusugan at kamangha-manghang lakas upang matagalan at maging masaya sa kabila ng mga pagsubok sa mala-ermitanyong pamumuhay. Ang mga yogis na katulad nila ay kalimitang naninirahan sa matataas na bundok, sa napakalamig na kapaligiran ng walang anomang kasuotan, o magarang tirahan o apoy man na magsisilbing tagapagbigay init, at konti lamang ang kinakain nila kalimitan ay mga dahon at prutas sa araw-araw. Karamihan sa kanilang may ganitong pamumuhay ay umabot sa edad na 200 at 300 na taon.

Friday, February 15, 2013

WATER MANTRA

"OUSHADIM JAHNAVI TOYAM
VAIDYO NARAYANA' HARIHI"


"Water touched by the Spirit of GOD is the best medicine,
because GOD is the best Doctor"

Monday, June 25, 2012

DIVISION OF MANTRA AND THEIR USE

The use of mantra divided intothe following six categories:

  1. SHANTIKARAN: These mantras deal with the cure of diseases and warding off the malefic influence of the planets.
  2. VASHI KARAN: Through these mantras, you can put under your control any woman, man , officer, minister, devata, soul,animal etc. and can fulfill your wishes.
  3. STAMBHAN: These mantras deal with all the persons etc., as detailed above in para 2 to stop them doing mischief, or acting against you.
  4. VIDESHAN: These mantras are used for creating differences between two or many individuals.
  5. UCHCHATTAN: These mantras deal with distraction of the mind of the enemy or opponents and other persons so that they may remain away form their country, birth place, residence, home, work and family members. It is also used when the sadhaka requires a person to remain at war with others.
  6. MARAN: These are death inflicting mantras through which can kill anybody at any distance without disclosing your identity. These mantras are available in Puranas, Hindu scripts, Mohammedan and Buddhist cults. Other religious persons may follow their corresponding words,which are equally applicable and can be recited.

Tuesday, May 29, 2012

AMULET

Object, inscription, drawing, or symbol believed to be imbued with a supernormal or magical power to protect against disease, evil spirits, the evil eye, bewitchment, infertility, impotence, bad luck, and a host of misfortunes and calamities.

In their simplest form, amulets are natural objects that have an eye-catching color, an unusual shape-such as a holed stone-or are rare, such as a four-leaf clover or double walnut. Ancient civilizations, in their efforts to control spirits and the forces of nature, made amulets from a variety of materials. The practice continues universally in modern times.

The term "amulet" is derived either from the Latin amuletum, or the Old Latin amoletum, for "means of defense." Amulets customarily are worn on the body, especially around the neck, in the form of jewelry or a charm, which is a magical phrase, rhyme, or prayer inscribed on paper, parchment, or an object. Amulets also are commonly worn as rings. Some amulets are designs, symbols, or inscriptions engraved on the doors or posts of homes, buildings, holy places, and tombs.

Virtually anything can become an amulet, depending on beliefs and resources. Among the most common are gems and semiprecious stones fashioned into jewelry, starues of deities, or statues of animals associated with certain powers and properties. Eyes also are common; perhaps the best-known eye amulet is the Eye of Horus of ancient Egypt, which guarded health and protected against evil spirits. The Egyptians also used frog amulets against  infertility, and scarab beetle amulets to guard the soul for resurrection after death and protect it against sorcery. Mummies have been found wearing pectoral necklaces containing scarabs and the Eye of Horus.

Vegetable amulets, including berries, fruits, nuts, plants, wood, and leaves, are very common in many parts of the world. The use of garlic as an amulet against evil, most notably vampires, may be traced to the ancient Romans, who used it against witches. Peach wood and stones are considered strong amulets against evil spirits in China.

Certain metals are believed to have amuletic properties. Iron universally is believed to keep away demons and witches. In India rings made of copper, silver, gold, and iron are worn to protect against sorcery. Elsewhere, iron horseshoes hung over the doorways of stables and homes keep out witches and evil spirits. Bells made of silver or iron will drive away the same. Amethyst pendants set in silver and worn on silver chains are believed to protect wearers from negative energy.

Written amulets also have been common since ancient times. The Romans had formulae for preventing various diseases. The ancient Hebrews believed in the protective powers of the names of angels and of God, and in the written word of scriptures. Written amulets are worn about the neck, hung over doors and beds, or carried in cases, boxes, and bags. The cylindrical mezuzah is one example of this type of amulet. Originally intended to protect against demons, it was later given religious significance with biblical inscriptions about monotheism. The mezuzah continues to be worn as a pendant and hung on the doorjambs of Jewish homes.

Other types of written amulets include spells, words of power, secret symbols and signs, religious phrases and scripture, and legends. In magic, magic circles are inscribed with amuletic symbols and words and names of power, which help protect the magician from harm by the spirits summoned in ritual. 


Sources: 
Francis Barrett. The Magus. 1801. Reprint. Secaucus, NJ: Citadel Press, 1967; E. A. Wallis Budge. Amulets and Superstitions. 1930. New York: Dover Publications, 1978; Richard Cavendish. The Black Arts. New York: Perigee Books, 1967; Emile Grillot de Givry. Witchcraft, Magic and Alchemy. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1931; Maria Leach, ed., and Jerome Fried, assoc. ed. Funk and Wagnalls Standard Dictionary of Folklore, Mythology, and Legend. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1979.

AKASHIC RECORDS

In Theosophy the master records of everything that has ever occurred since the beginning of the universe. The records are said to exist as impressions in the astral plane, and provide a dossier of sorts for souls who wish to examine their spiritual progress through many lifetimes.

The term "Akashic" comes from the Sanskrit word akasha, defined as either the fundamental etheric substance in the universe or all-pervasive space. According to Theosophy the akasha is an eternal record of the vibrations of every action, thought, emotion, light, and sound.

Some psychics say they consult the Akashic Records either through clairvoyance or our-of-body travel, to receive information about past history or lives. The process is variously described as tuning into an astral television set, or tuning into a radio broadcast, or visiting an enormous library and looking up information in books. Some say they encounter spirit guides, who assist them in locating information.

American medium Edgar Cayce often consulted the Akashic Records to look into past lives to find reasons for health, personal, and marital problems in the current lives of clients. Cayce alternately called the Akashic Records the "Universal Memory of Nature" and the "Book of Life."

In Edgar Cayce on Reincarnation, by Noel Langley, Cayce describes an apparent out-of-body trip to the Akashic Records to get information about a client. Cayce said he felt himself leave his body and travel in a narrow, straight shaft of light. On both sides of the shaft was fog or smoke, and shadowy beings who tried to distract him from his mission. Some pleaded for him to help them, but he kept to the light. As he continued on, the beings took on more distinct form and bothered him less. Eventually, they quit trying to distract him and seemed to help him on, then ignored him altogether. Finally, he arrived at a hill, where he saw a mount and a great temple. Inside was a large room like a library, filled with books of people's lives. All he had to do was pull down the book he wanted. 
 
Philosopher Rudolf Steiner delved into the Akashic Records, which he called the Akashic Chronicle, to produce his detailed descriptions of the mythical, lost civilizations of Atlantis and Lemuria.
 
According to Cayce and other psychics, the Akashic Records travel on waves of light, and anyone can gain access to them with proper psychic training and attunement.
 
 
 
Sources:  
Richard Cavendish, ed. The Encyclopedia of the Unexplained. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1974; Individual Reference File of Extracts from the Edgar Cayce Readings. Virginia Beach, VA: Edgar Cayce Foundation, 1976; Noel Langley. Edgar Cayce on Reincarnation. New York: Castle Books, 1967; Robert A. McDermott, ed. and intra. The Essential Steiner. San  Francisco: Harper & Row, 1984; Joan Windsor. The Inner Eye: Your Dreams Can Make You Psychic. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1985.

Wednesday, May 23, 2012

LYCANTHROPY

The transformation of a human being into an animal. The belief is an ancient one. The term derives from the Greek words lukos, a wolf, and anthropos, a man, but it is employed regarding a transformation into any animal shape. It is chiefly in those countries where wolves are numerous that we find such tales concerning them. But in India and some parts of Asia, the tiger takes the place of the wolf. In Russia and elsewhere it is the bear, and in Africa the leopard.

Such beliefs generally adhere to savage animals, but even harmless ones sometimes figure in them. There is considerable confusion as to whether such transformations were voluntary or involuntary, temporary or permanent. The human being transformed into the animal may be the physical individual or, on the other hand, may be only a double, that is, the human spirit may enter the animal but the human body remain unchanged.

Magicians and witches were credited with the power of transforming themselves into wolves and other animal shapes, and it was asserted that if the animal were wounded, then the marks of the wound would be discovered upon the wizard’s body. The belief was current in many tribal cultures that every individual possessed an animal form, which could be entered at death or at will. This transformation was effected either by magic or natural agency.

As mentioned, the wolf was a common form of animal transformation in Europe. In ancient Greece, the belief was associated with the dog, which took the place of the wolf. Other similar beliefs have been found in India and Java. In the former country we find the werewolf in a kind of vampire form.


MAGICAL TRANSFORMATION
The seventeenth-century writer Louis Guyon related the history of an enchanter who used to change himself into different beasts:

‘‘Certain people persuaded Ferdinand, first Emperor of that name, to command the presence of a Polish enchanter and magician in the town of Nuremberg to learn the result of a difference he had with the Turks, concerning the kingdom of Hungary; and not only did the magician make use of divination, but performed various other marvels, so that the king did not wish to see him, but the courtiers introduced him into his chamber. There he did many wonderful things, among others, he transformed himself into a horse, anointing himself with some grease, then he took the shape of an ox, and thirdly that of a lion, all in less than an hour. The emperor was so terrified by these transformations that he commanded that the magician should be immediately dismissed, and declined to hear the future from the lips of such a rascal.

‘‘It need no longer be doubted [that Lucius Apuleius Plato was a sorcerer, and that he] was transformed into an ass, for as much as he was charged with it before the proconsul of Africa, in the time of the Emperor Antonine I, in the year 150 A.D., as Apollonius of Tyana, long before, in the year 60, was charged before Domitian with the same crime. And more than three years after, the rumour persisted to the time of St. Augustine, who was an African, who has written and confirmed it; as also in his time the father of one Prestantius was transformed into a horse, as the said Prestantius declared. Augustine’s father having died, in a short time the son had wasted the greater part of his inheritance in the pursuit of the magic arts, and in order to flee poverty he sought to marry a rich widow named Pudentille, for such a long time that at length she consented. Soon after her only son and heir, the child of her former marriage, died. These things came about in a manner which led people to think that he had by means of magic entrapped Pudentille, who had been wooed in vain by several illustrious people, in order to obtain the wealth of her son. It was also said that the profound knowledge he possessed—for he was able to solve difficult questions which left other men bewildered—was obtained from a demon or familiar spirit he possessed. Further, certain people said they had seen him do many marvellous things, such as making himself invisible, transforming himself into a horse or into a bird, piercing his body with a sword without wounding himself, and similar performances. He was at last accused by one Sicilius OEmilianus, the censor, before Claudius Maximus, proconsul of Africa, who was said to be a Christian; but nothing was found against him.

‘‘Now, that he had been transformed into an ass, St. Augustine regards as indubitable, he having read it in certain true and trustworthy authors, and being besides of the same country; and this transformation happened to him in Thessaly before he was versed in magic, through the spell of a sorceress, who sold him, and who recovered him to his former shape after he had served in the capacity of an ass for some years, having the same powers and habits of eating and braying as other asses, but with a mind still sane and reasonable as he himself attested. And at last to show forth his case, and to lend probability to the rumour, he wrote a book entitled The Golden Ass, a mélange of fables and dialogues, to expose the vices of the men of his time, which he had heard of, or seen, during his transformation, with many of the labours and troubles he had suffered while in the shape of an ass.

‘‘However that may be, St. Augustine in the book of the City of God, book XVIII, chapters XVII and XVIII, relates that in his time there were in the Alps certain sorceresses who gave a particular kind of cheese to the passers by, who, on partaking of it, were immediately changed into asses or other beasts of burden, and were made to carry heavy weights to certain places. When their task was over, they were permitted to regain their human shape.

‘‘The bishop of Tyre, historian, writes that in his time, probably about 1220, some Englishmen were sent by their king to the aid of the Christians who were fighting in the Holy Land, and that on their arrival in a haven of the island of Cyprus a sorceress transformed a young English soldier into an ass. He, wishing to return to his companions in the ship, was chased away with blows from a stick, whereupon he returned to the sorceress who made use of him, until someone noticed that the ass kneeled in a church and did various other things which only a reasoning being could do. The sorceress who followed him was taken on suspicion before the authorities, was obliged to give him his human form three years after his transformation, and was forthwith executed.

‘‘We read that Ammonius, a peripatetic philosopher, about the time of Lucius Septimius Severus, in the year 196 A.D., had present at his lessons an ass whom he taught. I should think that this ass had been at one time a man, and that he quite understood what Ammonius taught, for these transformed persons retain their reason unimpaired, as St. Augustine and other writers have assured us.

‘‘Fulgose writes, book VIII, chapter II, that in the time of Pope Leon, who lived about the year 930, there were in Germany two sorceresses who used thus to change their guests into beasts, and on one occasion she changed a young mountebank into an ass, who, preserving his human understanding, gave a great deal of amusement to the passers-by. A neighbour of the sorceresses bought the ass at a good price, but was warned by them that he must not take the beast to a river, or he would lose it. Now the ass escaped one day and running to a near-by lake plunged into the water, when he returned to his own shape. Apuleius says that he regained his human form by eating roses.

‘‘There are still to be seen in Egypt asses which are led into the market-place to perform various feats of agility and tricks, understanding all the commands they receive, and executing them: such as to point out the most beautiful woman of the company, and many other things that one would hardly believe; and Belon, a physician, relates in his observations that he has seen them, and others also, who have been there, and who have affirmed the same to me.’’

Augustin Calmet, author of The Phantom World (2 vols., 1850), stated:

‘‘One day there was brought to St. Macarius, the Egyptian, an honest woman who had been transformed into a mare by the wicked art of a magician. Her husband and all who beheld her believed that she had really been changed into a mare. This woman remained for three days without taking any food, whether suitable for a horse or for a human being. She was brought to the priests of the place, who could suggest no remedy. So they led her to the cell of St. Macarius, to whom God had revealed that she was about to come. His disciples wished to send her away, thinking her a mare, and they warned the saint of her approach, and the reason for her journey. He said to them: ‘It is you who are the animals, who think you see that which is not; this woman is not changed, but your eyes are bewitched.’ As he spoke he scattered holy water on the head of the woman, and all those present saw her in her true shape. He had something given her to eat and sent her away safe and sound with her husband.’’


MODERN BELIEFS IN TRANSFORMATION
Belief in transformation of human beings into predatory animals persisted into relatively modern times in Africa, India, Java, Malaya, and other countries. In Africa there were tiger men and even a leopard society of wizards. It seems very likely, however, that many apparent cases of transformation were effected by wearing the skin of an animal when hunting victims. In some cases there may have been a perverse desire for blooddrinking or cannibalism, as in the celebrated sixteenth-century case of the French lycanthrope Gilles Garnier.

In July 1919 the Journal of the SPR published a summary of Richard Bagot’s article, ‘‘The Hyaenas of Pirra’’ (Cornhill Magazine, October 1918), in which some experiences were reported by a Lieutenant F. personally and an experience of the late Capt. Shott, D.S.O. dealt with the killing of Nigerians when in the form of supposed hyenas. The main facts, which deeply impressed the officers were as follows:

‘‘Raiding hyenas were wounded by gun-traps, and tracked in each case to a point where the hyena traces ceased and were succeeded by human footprints, which made for the native town. At each shooting a man mysteriously dies in the town, all access being refused to the body. In Lieut. F.’s experiences the death wail was raised in the town almost immediately after the shot; but Capt. Shott does not mention this. In Capt. Shott’s experience the beast was an enormous brute, readily trackable, which after being hard hit made off through the guinea-corn. It was promptly tracked, and a spot was come upon where ‘they found the jaw of the beast lying near a large pool of blood.’ Soon after the tracks reached a path leading to the native town. The natives next day came to Capt. Shott—and this is the curious part of the affair—and told him, without any regrets, that he had shot the Nefada—a lesser head-man—who was then lying dead with his jaw shot away. The natives gave their reasons as having seen and spoken to the Nefada, as he was, by his own admission, going into the bush. They heard the gun and saw him return with his head all muffled up and walking like a very sick man. On going next morning to see what was the matter . . . they found him as stated.’’

Mr. Bagot, a member of the SPR, added in response to further questions:

‘‘In the article in question I merely reproduced verbatim the reports and letters sent to the said official . . . by British officers well known to him, and said that the authenticity and good faith of the writers can be vouched for entirely. I have evidence of precisely similar occurrences that have come under the notice of Italian officers in Eritrea and Somaliland; and in all cases it would seem that a gravel patch thrown up by the small black ants is necessary to the process of metamorphosis. I drew the attention of Sir James G. Frazer (author of The Golden Bough) to this coincidence and asked him if he had come across in his researches anything which might explain the connection between gravel thrown up by the ants and the power of projection into animal forms; but he informed me that, so far as he could recollect, he had not done so. Italian officials and big game hunters assure me that it is considered most dangerous (by natives in Somaliland, Abyssinia, etc.) to sleep on ground thrown up by ants; the belief being that anyone who does so is liable to be possessed or obsessed by some wild animal, and that this obsession once having taken place, the victim is never afterwards able entirely to free himself from it and is compelled periodically to assume the form and habits of some beast or reptile.’’


PSYCHIC ASPECTS
Psychic research does not normally admit such phenomena as lycanthropy within its scope, but there are two possible points of contact. The first is the projection of the double (or astral body), provided it could be proved that the double may assume any desired shape. Eugen Rochas asserted that the double of his hypnotic subject, on being so suggested, assumed the shape of her mother. If it were proved that the shape of animals could be assumed, we would have to consider lycanthropy as a psychic possibility. But the animal, in that case, would not be more than a phantom, and we would have to prove that this phantom can be hurt and transfer, by repercussion, the wound to the projector.

The second possibility brings us nearer to this aspect of the problem. Paul Joire succeeded in transferring the exteriorized sensitivity of his subject to a figure made of putty. If the hand of the putty figure was scratched by a needle, a corresponding red mark appeared on the somnambule’s hand. 

The question arises: would it not be possible to transfer sensitivity to a living being, to an animal? In that case it would be natural to expect a repercussion from the animal to the human body.


Sources:
Baring-Gould, Sabine. The Book of Were-Wolves. London,
1865. Reprint, New York: Causeway Books, 1973.
 
Hamel, Frank. Human Animals. London, 1915. University
Books, 1969.
 
Kaigh, Frederick. Witchcraft and Magic of Africa. London:
Richard Lesley, 1947.
 
Maclean, Charles. The Wolf Children. Hill & Wang, 1977.
Summers, Montague. The Werewolf. London, 1933. University Books, 1966.
 
Woodward, Ian. The Werewolf Delusion. London & New York:
Paddington Press, 1979.

Tuesday, May 22, 2012

KUKAI (774–835)

KUKAI, the founder of Japanese esoteric Buddhism, was born in Zentsuji on the island of Shikoku to an aristocratic family. His uncle, a tutor to the crown prince, also became his teacher. As a young man, he dropped his studies of Confucius and career at court to study Buddhism, then very much a minority perspective. He was only 23 when he produced his first  book, in which he argued for the superiority of Buddhism over Confucianism and Taoism. Over the next few years he studied widely in the several different schools of Buddhist  thought then available in Japan, all of which were headquartered at Nara, near the imperial capital at Kyoto.

In 804 he traveled to Changan, then the capital of China, and became the last student of Hui-Guo (746–805), the leader of the Shingon or esoteric school of Buddhism. When he  returned to Japan he was an accomplished exponent of the esoteric tradition. He established himself in two centers, one on Mount Koya south of Kyoto and the other in Kyoto at the Toji temple. He would teach at these two places for the rest of his life and establish Dhingon as a major school of Japanese Buddhism.

In contrast to most Buddhists of his day who suggested that enlightenment took many lifetimes, Kukai argued that it was possible to achieve in a single lifetime. He also argued that  the body, which most who sought enlightenment considered an obstacle, was in fact the  vessel for its realization. He argued that the Buddha nature is present in all things, including all human beings. To understand the essential and innate unity of all things, Kukai proposed that students engage in meditative disciplines. Meditative insight would bring clarity to what was  otherwise a seemingly unbelievable idea. Kukai also argued for the dissolving of the secular  and sacred. He argued for a form of natural mysticism in which the Buddha was incarnate in  the world of nature and by extension in the world of art and music. He believed that even words could have the power of revelation.

In his book The Meanings of Sound, Word, and Reality, Kukai argued for the correlation of words and reality. Some words correspond to the reality of the Buddha nature. These True Words are termed mantras, and chanting a mantra articulates the Buddha nature for as long as the sound persists. He also believed that the overcoming of the ordinary consciousness and the Buddha nature was in fact most difficult for most people. People could overcome the separation through the practice of meditation, the chanting of mantras, and the use of mystical hand gestures called mudras.

Kukai died at Mt. Koyo in 835. In later generations he came to be worshipped almost as a  god and many came to believe that he had never died. He is now generally called Kobo Daishi or Great Master of the Extensive Teachings. Shingon Buddhism now exists in a variety of separate schools in Japan who have, over the centuries, developed a wide variety of esoteric methods to achieve communion with the Buddha nature.


Sources:
Kukai: Major Works. Translated by Yoshito Hakeda.
New York: Columbia University Press, 1972.
Yamasaki, Taiko. Shingon: Japanese Esoteric Buddhism.
Boston: Shambhala, 1988.